Worldwide, every fourth man (25 percent) - yet only 5.4 percent of women - smoke regularly. California's tobacco control efforts have reduced both adult and youth smoking rates by 50 percent, saved more than one million lives and have resulted in $134 billion worth of savings in health care costs.
While smoking prevalence has decreased, deaths attributable to smoking have gone up by 4.7% globally - with more than one in 10 deaths worldwide caused by smoking. The number of people aged 18 to 25 who have never smoked went up from 23.1 to 38.8 percent from 2001 to 2015, and only 7.8 percent of 12 to 17-year-olds smoke.
High smoking prevalence levels and worrying trends persist. Moreover, California has become the first state that gives no legal distinction between e-cigarettes, vaping cigarettes, and smoking tobacco.
And both the USA and world populations continue to grow, which has led to a 5 percent increase in the global number of smoking-related deaths since 2005. Former smokers also showed support in strong numbers, although nonsmoker support was the highest, at 85 percent.
"For example, India, where 11 2 per cent of the world's smokers live, supplemented the Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA) with the creation of a National Tobacco Control Programme (NTCP) in 2007".
The highest smoking prevalence for men was observed in mid-level development countries, whereas the highest smoking prevalence for women was observed in highly developed countries.
"It is much cheaper to pay for cessation measures than to pay for the treatment of diseases caused by smoking", said Michael Cummings, co-leader of the Tobacco Research Program and professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the Medical University of SC.More news: Axon: Free body cams to nation's cops and more for year
In light of the new tobacco tax going that went into effect over the weekend, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) reminds Californians that resources are available to help them kick the habit.
Responsibility for the global tobacco epidemic lies mainly with a handful of multinational companies based in rich countries, he said.
The researchers also linked increases in the number of women smoking in Eastern Europe since 1990, with the tobacco industry's targeting of that area in the 1990's.
Unlike many European countries, the USA tobacco industry, which is worth around $38 billion in revenue and shrinking by 2% annually, does not require cigarettes to be sold in packs without logos. Worldwide, between 1990 and 2015, smoking prevalence decreased by nearly a third (29.4%) to 15.3% in 2015.
Tonya Chang, senior government relations official with the American Heart Association, said health advocates made a decision to regroup in 2016 and try to encourage more local governments to adopt such laws.
"Success is possible but requires effective and aggressively enforced policies and laws", Gakidou said in a media release. Only four countries had significant annualized increases in smoking prevalence between 2005 and 2015: Congo and Azerbaijan for men and Kuwait and Timor-Leste for women.
The study was funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Bloomberg Philanthropies.